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October month practice (Oriya grammar)

Grammar is the set rules for making sentences (bAkya). As different rules exist in English language, similar rules also exist in Oriya language with some extras such as the adjectives used to differentiate between different genders. So, let's start with different parts of a sentence and what are the rules in constructing a sentence in Oriya.

What is a sentence??

When some words are used together to express our thoughts about something clearly, it's called a sentence. In a sentence there are mainly 3 elements, subject, object, and verb. In Oriya we use the terms " kartA ", " karma " and " kriyA" for them.


Note: As different signs such as colon, semicolon, quotes, period etc. are used in a sentence to express the correct meaning of words, same signs are used in Oriya sentences too. The only difference is that a period sign in English sentences is replaced by a line in Oriya sentences.

Alphabets swara barna, byanjana barna
Words rAma, galA, bidyALaya
Noun parbata, Suman, Amba gachha, ghoDA
Pronoun sie, semAne
Adjective bhala pilA, pakhALa bhAta, pAchiLA Amba
Number goTie pilA (singular), pilAmAne (plural)
Person mu, Ame (first person), tume, ApaNa (second person), se, semAne (third person)
Subject The main actor: rAma, mun, bhakta-mAne
Object The actor's aid: gIta, bhAta
Verb The actor's work: gAilA, khAile, paDhilA

Compound Words (sandhi or Jukta-shabda)

Word for a phrase (samAsa) (Two or more words can be expressed in one word.)

Rules in sentence construction in Oriya

The rules are set by taking into consideration the person, number, tense and gender and the characteristics of the subject and the object.

Subject and Verb

Prepositions (bibhakti)

First Kind (prathamA bibhakti)

go, he
Plural e, mAne, mAna, guDika, guDAka

Second Kind (dwitIyA bibhakti)

ku, nku, ki, nkiThAku
Plural nku, mAnanku, mAnanka-ThAku

Third Kind (trutIyA bibhakti)

dwArA, re, dehi, dei, e, kartruka
Plural mAnanka-dwArA, mAnanka-dehi, mAnanka-dei

Fourth Kind (chaturthI bibhakti)

ku, nku, ki, nki
Plural mAnanku, nku

Fifth Kind (panchamI bibhakti)

ru, ThAru, un, hun, Thaun, tahun, Thun
Plural mAnankaru, mAnankaThAru, mAnankaThun, mAnanka-Thaun

Sixth Kind (SaSThI bibhakti)

ra, nkara, nka
Plural mAnanka, mAnankara

Seventh Kind (saptamI bibhakti)

re, ThAre, e, ThAin, Thi, Thein, tahin
Plural mAnankare, mAnanka-ThAre, mAnanka-Thi, mAnanka-Thein


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